kohenari:

These are the concluding paragraphs of Noah Gittell’s excellent review of Captain America: Winter Soldier:

Turns out that the Nazis Steve Rogers was fighting in the first Captain America are part of a decades-long secret plot to control the world through fear; now they exist as a secret cell within the U.S. government. It’s an impressive narrative feat that folds Rogers’s old world into this new one, but it overly simplifies and ultimately obscures the real problems that the film aims to discuss. Bringing Nazis into the mix makes the film a lot more satisfying – but a lot less honest.

In fact, the forced introduction of an antiquated villain – as opposed to the topical villain of, say, Iron Man – suggests that the superhero may be losing its value as an archetype. An archetype is a way of expressing some set of cultural values, and it was reasonable to assume that the superhero movies of the 21st century were a way to express and ultimately process our post-9/11 anxieties. But the questions raised by these films must be answered in subsequent works of pop culture, otherwise they are only re-stating the problem. Winter Soldier gets us no closer to the truth.

Because it reaches into our past for a simplistic representation of evil, the film suggests that our ongoing journey towards forging a new, post-9/11 identity may be stuck in neutral, or, worse yet, going in reverse. And all of a sudden the idea of a new Marvel movie in 2028 is a frightening proposition. Will we still be figuring out how best to fight terror well into the next decade? Will the true nature of our enemy remain murky? Perhaps we need a new archetype to challenge us, instead of reinforcing the status quo. If nothing else, a $94 million opening weekend is in fact the best evidence that Winter Soldier offers no challenge to our collective values. And given the current dysfunction that is rippling through our culture – including but not limited to the federal government – that’s a serious cause for concern.

What Gittell does that I like so much is both a) to take a different view on the question of whether this new Captain America is speaking truth to power by commenting on our contemporary surveillance state and 2) tackling the question of the superhero archetype.

My own writing on heroism focuses on classical archetypes — the battlefield hero; the suffering hero; the other-regarding hero — and so I’m drawn to this second aspect of Gittell’s review. In particular, I wonder whether the superhero ever worked as an archetype at all.

As I argue in my book, one of the principal reasons the classical heroes are so interesting is that, despite their obvious excellence, they’re human like us. Throughout the Homeric epics, the poet contrasts the lives of men with the immortality of the gods in order to suggest the problem and promise of human mortality. The stakes are as high as they can possibly be for the men who fight at Troy and, because the stakes are so high, each decision they make is incredibly important.

In the Iliad, even the best warrior — one who is so like the gods on the battlefield that he can even fight with them and achieve some measure of success — is a dead man walking. We all know that Achilles is going to die at Troy … and so does he. And so, throughout my book, I argue that recognizing the limits of our existence allows us to open up a space for heroic behavior:

The most striking classical example, of course, is Homer’s Achilles, as his understanding of the limits of his existence leads to the question of the kind of life he will choose to live. In the end, Achilles chooses the fame of heroic deeds despite the recognition that doing so will lead to his untimely death.

And therein lies the problem with the superhero as heroic archetype: We all know that he’s basically indestructable. He might get beaten or smashed into a dozen buildings or launched into outer space or shot or stabbed or poisoned … but he’s going to get back up and he’s going to win. And, most of the time, he seems to know it too. In this way, there aren’t any real stakes  or choices for the superhero when it comes to doing or not doing his heroic deeds.

Can Steve Rogers be killed? I don’t know. I’m sure someone will comment and explain that he’s just stronger and faster but not actually invincible. I don’t read the comic books so my only experience with him is in three recent films where, by all accounts, the answer is clearly that he cannot die, at least by any of the means available to his enemies. What’s more, he behaves as though he can’t be killed and, as a result, he never for a moment seems to entertain questions about his life, what all the fighting is about, whether he might be better off if he settled down in some out-of-the-way place and gave up the superhero lifestyle, and the like. He’s a superhero and his job is fighting off one threat after another until the audience stops giving the producers of these films billions of dollars. Like all superheroes, his motivation is justice or doing the right thing … but there’s very depth to it, at least by comparison with the Achilles of Book IX:

Give in to Agamemnon? I think not / neither to him nor to the rest. I had / small thanks for fighting, fighting without truce / against hard enemies here. The portion’s equal / whether a man hangs back or fights his best; / the same respect, or lack of it, is given / brave man and coward. One who’s active dies / like the do-nothing. What least thing have I / to show for it, for harsh days undergone / and my life gambled, all these years of war?

[…]

Now I think / no riches can compare with being alive, / not even those they say this well-built Ilion / stored up in peace before the Achaians came. / Neither could all the Archer’s shrine contains / at rocky Pytho, in the crypt of stone. / A man may come by cattle and sheep in raids; / tripods he buys, and tawny-headed horses; / but his life’s breath cannot be hunted back / or be recaptured once it pass his lips (385-498).

That Achilles eventually enters the war again, knowing the full measure of what it will cost him, is heartwrenching. And Homer spares the reader none of it in those scenes that begin with the death of Patroclus and culminate in Achilles’ rearming for war. The depth of emotion that Homer wrings from the character as he sits by the ships can’t be matched by any superhero because, as much as they have in common, the classical battlefield hero and the contemporary superhero diverge in the most decisive respect: their humanity.

With nothing to lose, Captain America and his fellow superheroes are the most hollow sort of heroic archetype, if they can actually be considered an archetype at all.

14 notes

logicd:

eightyprovinces:

Let’s all remember that one year ago today SIX people blocked legislation which 90% of Americans wanted. Think of the frustration in these faces and all the lives lost since then.
This day should never be forgotten.

>90%

http://i.imgur.com/pfalHAN.png

http://i.imgur.com/yHOFRES.jpg

http://i.imgur.com/DLU3Oxu.jpg
Also note that NJ is rank 2 according to brady campaign for its gun control laws, and that Pennsylvania is rank 10. 
>asking no gun people in almost no gun states broad questions on gun ownership
http://www.gallup.com/poll/150341/record-low-favor-handgun-ban.aspx
Some more facts because you sound stupid
http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2013/06/25/study-using-guns-for-defense-leads-to-fewer-injuries>Citing four separate studies between 1988-2004, the assessment from the Institute of Medicine and the National Research Council says crime victims who use guns in self-defense have consistently lower injury rates than victims who use other strategies to protect themselves (other strategies include stalling, calling the police or using weapons such as knives or baseball bats).http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2012-12-27/how-often-do-we-use-guns-in-self-defense>Hemenway finds more reliable an annual federal government research project, called the National Crime Victimization Survey, which yields estimates in the neighborhood of 100,000 defensive gun uses per year. Making various reasonable-sounding adjustments, other social scientists have suggested that perhaps a figure somewhere between 250,000 and 370,000 might be more accurate.http://www.thecrimsonpirate.com/blog/?p=1871>The National Review Online recently published an article on the realtionship between gun control and mass murders in Europe and America. It also explores the misperception that mass murder is an exclusively American phenomenon. As it turns Europe has us beat.http://www.frontpagemag.com/2012/dgreenfield/europe-has-same-rate-of-multiple-victim-shootings-as-the-united-states/>Europe has a lot of multiple victim shootings. If you look at a per capita rate, the rate of multiple-victim public shootings in Europe and the United States over the last 10 years have been fairly similar to each other.=============No rise in mass shootingsCrime and homicide is fallingNo correlation between firearm ownership and homicide/suicideOther various shitBanning guns would not reduce murder and suicidehttp://www.law.harvard.edu/students/orgs/jlpp/Vol30_No2_KatesMauseronline.pdfNo rise in mass shootingshttp://news.yahoo.com/no-rise-mass-killings-impact-huge-185700637.htmlGun Homicide Rate Down 49% Since 1993 Peak; Public Unawarehttp://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2013/05/07/gun-homicide-rate-down-49-since-1993-peak-public-unawareGuns are excellent self defense toolshttp://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=18319&page=R1Mexico’s 90% Gun Supply come from the USA Mythhttp://www.stratfor.com/weekly/20110209-mexicos-gun-supply-and-90-percent-mythDOJ Study Fails to Show 1994 Assault Weapons Ban Worked http://ivn.us/2012/07/23/doj-study-fails-show-1994-assault-weapons-ban-worked/Defensive gun usage high as 1.5 millionhttp://www.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/pubs/pdf/WP-Tough-Targets.pdf===========>64% of gun control advocates believe the incorrect assumption that gun crime has gone uphttp://www.rasmussenreports.com/public_content/politics/current_events/gun_control/64_who_favor_more_gun_control_believe_gun_crime_has_gone_up>53% of Americans oppose stricter gun lawshttp://www.rasmussenreports.com/public_content/politics/general_politics/march_2014/53_oppose_stricter_gun_control_laws>64% of Americans believe it would be bad if only the government had gunshttp://www.rasmussenreports.com/public_content/politics/current_events/gun_control/64_think_it_would_be_bad_if_only_government_had_guns>62% of Americans believe that the government wouldn’t fairly enforce gun lawshttp://www.rasmussenreports.com/public_content/politics/current_events/gun_control/62_don_t_trust_government_to_fairly_enforce_gun_control_laws>74% of Americans believe that the Constitution allows them to own a gun.http://www.rasmussenreports.com/public_content/politics/current_events/gun_control/74_think_americans_have_constitutional_right_to_own_a_gun=========Defensive Gun Use55,000-80,000 DGUs/year - David Hemenway, Chance, Vol 10, No. 3, 19971 million DGUs/year - Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (Northwestern) 87 (1997) / Harry L. Wilson, Guns, Gun Control, And Elections: The Politics And Policy of Firearms, ISBN 0742553485, Rowman & Littlefield, 2007108,000 DGUs/year - National Crime Victimization Survey (Cook et al., 1997)250,000 to 370,000 DGUs/year - Paul Barrett (27 December 2012). “How Often Do We Use Guns in Self-Defense?”497,646 (95% CI = 266,060-729,231) DGUs/year - Estimating intruder-related firearm retrievals in U.S. households, 1994.Ikeda RM1, Dahlberg LL, Sacks JJ, Mercy JA, Powell KE. Violence Vict. 1997 Winter;12(4):363-72.==========I would like to post the official numbers from the centers for disease control and Federal Bureau of InvestigationIn 2013 there were roughly 32,000 deaths from guns.19,200 were suicides, thats 60% of what the media reports as “gun violence”960 were accidents1280 were justified homicides10,560 were actual homicidesThe FBI reports that approximately 80% of homicides are directly gang on gang violenceThat leaves 2112 in a society of 312,000,000 peopleNow lets do some basic math>You have a 0.000102564% chance of being shot>0.00000984% chance if you arent a gang member or planning on killing yourselfThe United States has a staggeringly low rate of gun violence. Period.Sauce- http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/homicide.htm=======15,000+ Police surveyed on Gun Control. Turns out they dont like gun control much and feel safer when citizens are armed.Articlehttp://www.policeone.com/corporate-profile/press-releases/6188461-PoliceOne-com-Releases-Survey-of-15-000-Law-Enforcement-Professionals-about-U-S-Gun-Control-Policies/PDF with all the questions asked to officers and results:https://ddq74coujkv1i.cloudfront.net/p1_gunsurveysummary_2013.pdf=======http://www.leg.state.co.us/clics/clics2012a/commsumm.nsf/b4a3962433b52fa787256e5f00670a71/5de089825c00843e872579b80079912d/$FILE/SenState0305AttachB.pdf>Upon interviewing convicted felons, these researchers found that>74% indicated that burglars avoided occupied dwellings, due to fears of being shot>57% said that most criminals feared armed citizens more than the police>40% of the felons had been deterred from committing a particular crime, because they believed that the potential victim was armed=======Gun homicide rate down 49%http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2013/05/07/gun-homicide-rate-down-49-since-1993-peak-public-unaware/Banning guns would not lower crime or suicidehttp://www.law.harvard.edu/students/orgs/jlpp/Vol30_No2_KatesMauseronline.pdf
======
The following is your chances of being killed by a knife vs a gun in a “mass shooting” vs being killed by a cop
http://pastebin.com/ZGKtmB2t
tl;dr
You are 75% more likely to get stabbed to death than killed in a random public mass shooting.
You are THIRTY-TWO times more likes to be killed by LAW ENFORCEMENT than by a random mass shooter.
0.00000396% chance of being killed by mass shooting. Or 1 / 25,253,000 chance of being a random mass shooting death
Chance of dying by a gun in general? 0.0095%
Chance of dying by a gun not including suicide that is often used to pad the numbers against gun owners? 0.0032%
What about other things?
Unintentional fall deaths
Number of deaths: 26,009
Deaths per 100,000 population: 8.4
Motor vehicle traffic deaths
Number of deaths: 33,687
Deaths per 100,000 population: 10.9
Unintentional poisoning deaths

Number of deaths: 33,041
Deaths per 100,000 population: 10.7
All poisoning deaths
Number of deaths: 42,917
Deaths per 100,000 population: 13.9
All Drug poisoning deaths
Deaths per 100,000 population: 12.4 (2010)
All firearm deaths
Number of deaths: 31,672
Deaths per 100,000 population: 10.3
Guns?
10.3 for deaths total in general (remember how suicide was the bulk here)
Broken down
3.6 for homicide 6.3 for suicide0.30 for unintentional 0.10 undetermined
You are more likely to fucking trip and die than be killed by a gun.
Sources are FBI and CDC, just google for once.
——————
But please tell me more about guns and how we need to ban these dangerous evil things.

Great response.  Thoughtful and well researched.  My only quibble is that you characterize gun control in any form as a gun ban.  I think it would be more intellectually honest to call it what it is, a restriction, not an all out ban.

logicd:

eightyprovinces:

Let’s all remember that one year ago today SIX people blocked legislation which 90% of Americans wanted. Think of the frustration in these faces and all the lives lost since then.

This day should never be forgotten.

>90%

http://i.imgur.com/pfalHAN.png

http://i.imgur.com/yHOFRES.jpg

http://i.imgur.com/DLU3Oxu.jpg

Also note that NJ is rank 2 according to brady campaign for its gun control laws, and that Pennsylvania is rank 10. 

>asking no gun people in almost no gun states broad questions on gun ownership

http://www.gallup.com/poll/150341/record-low-favor-handgun-ban.aspx

Some more facts because you sound stupid

http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2013/06/25/study-using-guns-for-defense-leads-to-fewer-injuries
>Citing four separate studies between 1988-2004, the assessment from the Institute of Medicine and the National Research Council says crime victims who use

guns in self-defense have consistently lower injury rates than victims who use other strategies to protect themselves (other strategies include stalling,

calling the police or using weapons such as knives or baseball bats).

http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2012-12-27/how-often-do-we-use-guns-in-self-defense
>Hemenway finds more reliable an annual federal government research project, called the National Crime Victimization Survey, which yields estimates in the

neighborhood of 100,000 defensive gun uses per year. Making various reasonable-sounding adjustments, other social scientists have suggested that perhaps a

figure somewhere between 250,000 and 370,000 might be more accurate.

http://www.thecrimsonpirate.com/blog/?p=1871
>The National Review Online recently published an article on the realtionship between gun control and mass murders in Europe and America. It also explores the

misperception that mass murder is an exclusively American phenomenon. As it turns Europe has us beat.

http://www.frontpagemag.com/2012/dgreenfield/europe-has-same-rate-of-multiple-victim-shootings-as-the-united-states/
>Europe has a lot of multiple victim shootings. If you look at a per capita rate, the rate of multiple-victim public shootings in Europe and the United States

over the last 10 years have been fairly similar to each other.

=============

No rise in mass shootings
Crime and homicide is falling
No correlation between firearm ownership and homicide/suicide
Other various shit

Banning guns would not reduce murder and suicide
http://www.law.harvard.edu/students/orgs/jlpp/Vol30_No2_KatesMauseronline.pdf

No rise in mass shootings
http://news.yahoo.com/no-rise-mass-killings-impact-huge-185700637.html

Gun Homicide Rate Down 49% Since 1993 Peak; Public Unaware
http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2013/05/07/gun-homicide-rate-down-49-since-1993-peak-public-unaware

Guns are excellent self defense tools
http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=18319&page=R1

Mexico’s 90% Gun Supply come from the USA Myth
http://www.stratfor.com/weekly/20110209-mexicos-gun-supply-and-90-percent-myth

DOJ Study Fails to Show 1994 Assault Weapons Ban Worked
http://ivn.us/2012/07/23/doj-study-fails-show-1994-assault-weapons-ban-worked/

Defensive gun usage high as 1.5 million
http://www.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/pubs/pdf/WP-Tough-Targets.pdf

===========

>64% of gun control advocates believe the incorrect assumption that gun crime has gone up
http://www.rasmussenreports.com/public_content/politics/current_events/gun_control/64_who_favor_more_gun_control_believe_gun_crime_has_gone_up

>53% of Americans oppose stricter gun laws
http://www.rasmussenreports.com/public_content/politics/general_politics/march_2014/53_oppose_stricter_gun_control_laws

>64% of Americans believe it would be bad if only the government had guns
http://www.rasmussenreports.com/public_content/politics/current_events/gun_control/64_think_it_would_be_bad_if_only_government_had_guns

>62% of Americans believe that the government wouldn’t fairly enforce gun laws
http://www.rasmussenreports.com/public_content/politics/current_events/gun_control/62_don_t_trust_government_to_fairly_enforce_gun_control_laws

>74% of Americans believe that the Constitution allows them to own a gun.
http://www.rasmussenreports.com/public_content/politics/current_events/gun_control/74_think_americans_have_constitutional_right_to_own_a_gun

=========

Defensive Gun Use

55,000-80,000 DGUs/year - David Hemenway, Chance, Vol 10, No. 3, 1997

1 million DGUs/year - Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (Northwestern) 87 (1997) / Harry L. Wilson, Guns, Gun Control, And Elections: The Politics And

Policy of Firearms, ISBN 0742553485, Rowman & Littlefield, 2007

108,000 DGUs/year - National Crime Victimization Survey (Cook et al., 1997)

250,000 to 370,000 DGUs/year - Paul Barrett (27 December 2012). “How Often Do We Use Guns in Self-Defense?”

497,646 (95% CI = 266,060-729,231) DGUs/year - Estimating intruder-related firearm retrievals in U.S. households, 1994.Ikeda RM1, Dahlberg LL, Sacks JJ, Mercy

JA, Powell KE. Violence Vict. 1997 Winter;12(4):363-72.

==========

I would like to post the official numbers from the centers for disease control and Federal Bureau of Investigation
In 2013 there were roughly 32,000 deaths from guns.
19,200 were suicides, thats 60% of what the media reports as “gun violence”
960 were accidents
1280 were justified homicides
10,560 were actual homicides
The FBI reports that approximately 80% of homicides are directly gang on gang violence
That leaves 2112 in a society of 312,000,000 people

Now lets do some basic math
>You have a 0.000102564% chance of being shot
>0.00000984% chance if you arent a gang member or planning on killing yourself

The United States has a staggeringly low rate of gun violence. Period.

Sauce- http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/homicide.htm

=======

15,000+ Police surveyed on Gun Control. Turns out they dont like gun control much and feel safer when citizens are armed.

Article
http://www.policeone.com/corporate-profile/press-releases/6188461-PoliceOne-com-Releases-Survey-of-15-000-Law-Enforcement-Professionals-about-U-S-Gun-Control-

Policies/

PDF with all the questions asked to officers and results:
https://ddq74coujkv1i.cloudfront.net/p1_gunsurveysummary_2013.pdf

=======

http://www.leg.state.co.us/clics/clics2012a/commsumm.nsf/b4a3962433b52fa787256e5f00670a71/5de089825c00843e872579b80079912d/$FILE/SenState0305AttachB.pdf

>Upon interviewing convicted felons, these researchers found that

>74% indicated that burglars avoided occupied dwellings, due to fears of being shot
>57% said that most criminals feared armed citizens more than the police
>40% of the felons had been deterred from committing a particular crime, because they believed that the potential victim was armed

=======

Gun homicide rate down 49%

http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2013/05/07/gun-homicide-rate-down-49-since-1993-peak-public-unaware/

Banning guns would not lower crime or suicide

http://www.law.harvard.edu/students/orgs/jlpp/Vol30_No2_KatesMauseronline.pdf

======

The following is your chances of being killed by a knife vs a gun in a “mass shooting” vs being killed by a cop

http://pastebin.com/ZGKtmB2t

tl;dr

You are 75% more likely to get stabbed to death than killed in a random public mass shooting.

You are THIRTY-TWO times more likes to be killed by LAW ENFORCEMENT than by a random mass shooter.

0.00000396% chance of being killed by mass shooting. Or 1 / 25,253,000 chance of being a random mass shooting death

Chance of dying by a gun in general? 0.0095%

Chance of dying by a gun not including suicide that is often used to pad the numbers against gun owners? 0.0032%

What about other things?

Unintentional fall deaths

  • Number of deaths: 26,009
  • Deaths per 100,000 population: 8.4

Motor vehicle traffic deaths

  • Number of deaths: 33,687
  • Deaths per 100,000 population: 10.9

Unintentional poisoning deaths

  • Number of deaths: 33,041
  • Deaths per 100,000 population: 10.7

All poisoning deaths

  • Number of deaths: 42,917
  • Deaths per 100,000 population: 13.9

All Drug poisoning deaths

  • Deaths per 100,000 population: 12.4 (2010)

All firearm deaths

  • Number of deaths: 31,672
  • Deaths per 100,000 population: 10.3

Guns?

10.3 for deaths total in general (remember how suicide was the bulk here)

Broken down

3.6 for homicide 6.3 for suicide
0.30 for unintentional
0.10 undetermined

You are more likely to fucking trip and die than be killed by a gun.

Sources are FBI and CDC, just google for once.

——————

But please tell me more about guns and how we need to ban these dangerous evil things.

Great response.  Thoughtful and well researched.  My only quibble is that you characterize gun control in any form as a gun ban.  I think it would be more intellectually honest to call it what it is, a restriction, not an all out ban.

631 notes

kohenari:

Yesterday, the internet was abuzz with the news that leaflets were posted at a synagogue in Donetsk and/or handed to several Jewish residents. The leaflets apparently told Jews they needed to register with authorities and pay a fee or risk expulsion.

Then there was almost immediate pushback,…

120 notes

carlsagan:

Carl Sagan on giving a fuck

11,475 notes

kane52630:

Jaime likes pie now.

This is exactly what happen, sorry guys about the spoilerz!

(Source: brienneoftarth)

43,248 notes

shakuzen:

michaeljsingh:

Dogs reacting to magic tricks the same way people do: adorably.

THIS MAKES ME SO HAPPY

218,551 notes

Slow Rise

Check out this mix on @8tracks: Doin it by Tiagoguevara.

Check out this mix on @8tracks: Doin it by Tiagoguevara.

rightsided:

For a non profit organization, the PokeCenter does surprisingly well.

Tumblr once again showing a complete lack of understanding of economics and business.

^fights worth fighting

(Source: wondermiggy)

226,592 notes

maneatingbadger:

policymic:

Female pilot responds to ugly sexist note with killer comeback

"I respectfully disagree with your opinion that the ‘cockpit,’ (we now call it the flight deck as no cocks are required), is no place for a lady. In fact, there are no places that are not for ladies anymore."
Read more | Follow policymic


"100% Recycled Content," indeed (we’ve all heard this before). But hey, it’s chlorine-free! 

maneatingbadger:

policymic:

Female pilot responds to ugly sexist note with killer comeback

"I respectfully disagree with your opinion that the ‘cockpit,’ (we now call it the flight deck as no cocks are required), is no place for a lady. In fact, there are no places that are not for ladies anymore."

Read moreFollow policymic

"100% Recycled Content," indeed (we’ve all heard this before). But hey, it’s chlorine-free! 

241 notes